Medical parasitology ppt

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Tags: medical parasitology. Latest Highest Rated. Two living things live together and involve protection or other advantages to one or both partner. Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism 6 Commensalism Both partners are able to lead indepenent lives, but one may gain advantage from the association when they are together and least not damage to the other.

A female pea crab in the mantle cavity of its mussel host. The crab does not damage the mussel and uses its shell purely for protection 7 Mutualism An association which is beneficial to both living things. A selection of ciliates from the rumen. The rumen contains enormous numbers of ciliates that break down cellulose in the feed.

The former that is beneficial to is called parasite, the latter that is harmful to is called host. Type of parasites Protozoa Nematodes Parasites Helminths Trematodes Endo- Cestodes Arthropods Ecto- 11 No Transcript 12 No Transcript 13 Endoparasite and ectoparasite A parasite which lives in or on the body of the host is called endoparasite protozoa and heminthes or ectoparasite arthropods.

Intermediate host The host harboring the larvae or asexual stage of parasite. Final host The host harboring adult or sexual stage of parasite. Reservoir host Animals harboring the same species of parasites as man. Potential sources of human infection. The direct life-cycle Only one host no intermediate host.

Medical Parasitology: A Self-Instructional Text 6th Edition PDF Free Download | [Direct Link]

The indirect life cycle Life cycle with more than one host intermediat host and final host. The resistance Immunity is not very strong. In general, It dont wipe out parasites completely, but may limit the number of parasites and establish balance with parasites. Innate immunity Acquired immunity 19 Innate immunity Barrier Prevent parasites to invade in certain degree.

Acid in skin or stomach can cause damage of the parasites. Phagocytosis of phagocyte. But not very strong! Sterilizing immunity Wipe out the parasites completely, meanwhile get a long-term specific resistance to re-infection.

Non-sterilizing immunity Wipe out most of the parasites, but not completely. No parasite, no immunity!

Paniker’s Textbook of Medical Parasitology PDF FREE Download [Direct Link]

Carrier Persons who have parasites in their body, not show symptoms. Reservoir host Animals that harbors the same species of parasites as man. Sometimes, the parasites in animals can transmit into human.Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Medical Parasitology: Medical Parasitology Prof.

Types of Parasites: Types of Parasites Ectoparasite : that lives on the surface of the host e. Obligatory parasite : a parasite which is completely dependent on its host and cannot live a free life like most of the parasites as Schistosoma.

Types of Parasites: Types of Parasites Opportunistic parasite : they flare up and cause disease in immunocompromized patients e. The organism does not normally cause disease in immunocomptent host Temporary parasite: visit his host for meals only e. Host: Host The animal that harbors the parasite Types of Hosts: Types of Hosts Definitive host : that harbours the sexually mature or adult parasite Intermediate host: that harbours the larval or asexual forms of the parasite Reservoir host: animal contain the parasite and transmit it to man Vector : is the arthropod that carries the parasite from one host to others Parasitic schedule: Parasitic schedule Name genus — species e.

Schistosoma mansoni.

medical parasitology ppt

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Medical Parasitology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Medical Parasitology. Tags: arthropods medical parasitic parasitology. Latest Highest Rated. A parasite is an organism that live on or within another organism called the host.

Parasitology is a science of studying parasitism and a discipline dealing with the biology of parasites including its morphology, embryology, physiology, biochemistry and nutrition, etc. Since the parasites studied in this discipline involve parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminthes, certain lesser groups of worms, parasitic arthropods, and the vectors of parasites, that is, parasitology is largely an amalgamation of protozoology, helminthology, entomology and acarology.

Parasitology has also been subdivided into medical or human parasitology, veterinary parasitology, fish parasitology and plant nematology. Medical parasitology or human parasitology is restricted to studying those parasites that are living in or on the body of humans and with aspects of the host-parasite relationship having medical significance. In other words, medical parasitology is the subject which deals with the parasites that infect man, the diseases caused by them, clinical picture and the response generated by man against them.

Pathogenic biology which focuses on the biological causes to human infectious diseases biological etiologyis usually comprised in preventive medicine and is also considered as the foundation of clinical infectious or communicable diseases and public health.

Microbiology Pathogen Microbe viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Parasitology Pathogen Parasites protozoa, helminthes, and arthropods. Medical parasitology is not a independent curriculum.

Curriculum Reform in China Beforetwo independent curricula Sincea compulsive curriculum Pathogenic biology. However, in our school, microbiology and parasitology are two independent curricula in medical education.

Wang Shiping Ye Shiying. Textbook of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology 1st Edition2. Foundation of Parasitology 3rd Edition ,8th ed, 3. David T John, et al. Medical Parasitology 9th Edition4. Intestinal roundworms and tapeworms. Worms from fishes, domesticated animals, and humans.NCBI Bookshelf.

Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. Medical parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminths wormsand those arthropods that directly cause disease or act as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that simultaneously injures and derives sustenance from its host. Some organisms called parasites are actually commensals, in that they neither benefit nor harm their host for example, Entamoeba coli.

Although parasitology had its origins in the zoologic sciences, it is today an interdisciplinary field, greatly influenced by microbiology, immunology, biochemistry, and other life sciences. Infections of humans caused by parasites number in the billions and range from relatively innocuous to fatal.

The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. For example, approximately 30 percent of the world's population is infected with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

The incidence of many parasitic diseases e. Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic e. The migration of parasite-infected people, including refugees, from areas with high prevalence rates of parasitic infection also has added to the health problems of certain countries. A misconception about parasitic infections is that they occur only in tropical areas.

Although most parasitic infections are more prevalent in the tropics, many people in temperate and subtropical areas also become infected, and visitors to tropical countries may return with a parasite infection.

The unicellular parasites protozoa and multicellular parasites helminths, arthropods are antigenically and biochemically complex, as are their life histories and the pathogenesis of the diseases they cause. During their life, parasitic organisms typically go through several developmental stages that involve changes not only in structure but also in biochemical and antigenic composition.

Some helminth larval stages have little resemblance to the adult stages for example, those of tapeworms and flukes. Some parasitic protozoa also change greatly during their life history; for example, Toxoplasma gondii is an intestinal coccidian in cats but in humans takes on a different form and localizes in deep tissues. Some of these infections can convert from a well-tolerated or asymptomatic condition to life-threatening disease. Many parasitic infections are transmitted from animals to humans zoonotic infections ; the human disease may or may not resemble the disease caused in the lower animal host.

This section of the book has two types of chapters. Several general chapters deal with the structure and classification of parasites and the mechanisms of parasitic diseases.

The remaining chapters describe the specific human parasites and the diseases they cause. Emphasis is placed throughout on the basic biology of the pathogens and their host-parasite relationships. Thus, descriptions of the basic properties of the pathogens, the pathogenesis of the diseases they cause, host defenses, and epidemiology are highlighted. Practical information on clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and control has been included in the chapters on specific pathogens.

Most chapters treat a group of related pathogens for example, trematodes, cestodes. Other chapters are more limited in scope because of the expertise of the authors and the difficulty involved in including these species in the groups discussed in the other chapters.

This section gives the reader a broad, in-depth coverage of medically important parasites. Such coverage is essential to give students the awareness and understanding necessary for proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the parasitic infections.

The most important element in diagnosing a parasitic infection is often the physician's suspicion that a parasite may be involved—a possibility that is too often overlooked. This kind of awareness requires a knowledge of the biology of the parasites.Parasites may be simple unicellular protozoa or complex multicellular metazoa Eukaryote: a cell with a well-defined chromosome in a membrane-bound nucleus.

All parasitic organisms are eukaryotes Introduction Protozoa: unicellular organisms, e. Plasmodium malaria Metazoa: multicellular organisms, e. Defnitive host: the host in which adult stage of parasite lives or sexual mode of reproduction takes place. Intermediate host: the host in which larval stages lives or asexual mode of reproduction takes place.

Introduction Parenteric host: vertebrate host in which parasite remains viable without development or multiplication. Transport host: host serve to pass on the infection from one person to another. Zoonosis: a parasitic disease in which an animal is normally the host - but which also infects man Vector: a living carrier e. A typical example is the female Anopheles mosquito that transmits malaria Host parasite relationship Commensalism or mutualism: parasites which lives in host without causing any damage in complete harmonial condition.

Saprophytism: parasites which depends on dead and decaying organic matter for their survival. Parasitism: parasite which lives in and out of the body of host causing damage to host. Sources of infection Parasitic infections to humans by various sources like Soil: embryonated eggs,infective larvae ex:ascaris eggs,hook worm larvae etc Water: infective forms,intermediate hosts,infective larvaes,freeliving parasites Food: contaminated with infected parasites,larvae,eggs etc Sources of infections Insect vectors:biological vectors like mosquito,sandflies,tsetse flies,ticks etc.

Mechanical vectors like houseflies. Animals : domestic and wild animals. Autoinfection: by self like fingers to mouth, internal reinfection. Modes of infection oral transmission: common mode,through contaminated food,water,soiled fingers or fomites.

Skin transmission: entry through skin Vector transmission: parasites undergo development or multiplication in the body of true vectors ie biological vectors transmit infective parasites or parasite stages. Mode of infections Direct transmission: parasitic infections transmitted by person to person contact like inhalation,congenital,iatrogenic infection,sexual mode. Course of infection Incubation or prepatent period: the interval time between initial infection and earliest appearance of parasite or its stages in blood or secretions.

Immunity in parasitic infections Like other infectious agents ,parasites also elicit immune responses in the host like humoral and cellular. But comparitively less efficient like bacteial and viral because their size,complex structure,antigenic structure etc.

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MSc Medical Parasitology - LSHTM

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medical parasitology ppt

Is this content inappropriate?To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Introduction to Medical Parasitology. Innocent Nkezabera. Potential sources of human infection. Most of the normal floras of the human body. Worms like Ascaris lumbricoides reside in the gastrointestinal tract of man, and feed on important items of intestinal food causing various illnesses.

Sometimes, the parasites in animals can transmit into human. The susceptible host In general, most people is the susceptible host. The parasite reaching a susceptible host must gain entrance and set up a favorable residence in order to complete its life cycle and cause the transmission of parasitic diseases.

Arthropod transmissionmalaria. Treatment of the patients, carriers and reservoir hosts. Paying attention to personal hygiene, changing bad eating habit, taking medicine. Effect cont. Nomenc cont. This means that it belongs to the Genus Ascaris and the name of the species lumbricoides was given by Linnaeus in the year They have one or more whip like flagella for locomotion at some stage of their life cycle.

In some cases, there is the presence of undulating membrane Eg. They are all typically amoeboid and include Entamoeba, Endolimax, Iodamoeba, Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, etc. Helminths: The parasitic worms, or helminths, of human beings belong to two phyla- Platyhelminthes flatworms and Nemathehelminthes Round worms.

They have suckers in their head and in some species also hooks that attach the tapewor to its host. Alimentary canal and body cavity are absent.

Examples are Diphyllobothrium, Taenia, Echinococcus, Hymenolepsis, etc. Sexes are not separate except Schistosomes which are diecious.

medical parasitology ppt

Alimentary canal is present but is not complete anus absent. The body cavity is absent. Sexes are separate diecious. They also lack hooks and suckers.

Examples are: Intestinal i. Caecum and vermiform appendix: Enterobius vermicularis Threadworm or pin wormTrichuris trichuria Whipworm. Somatic inside the tissues and organs i.

Lymphatic system: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi ii. Subcutaneous tissue: Onchocerca volvulus, Dracunculus medinensis iii.Parasites may be simple unicellular protozoa or complex multicellular metazoa Eukaryote: a cell with a well-defined chromosome in a membrane-bound nucleus.

All parasitic organisms are eukaryotes Introduction Protozoa: unicellular organisms, e. Plasmodium malaria Metazoa: multicellular organisms, e. Defnitive host: the host in which adult stage of parasite lives or sexual mode of reproduction takes place.

Intermediate host: the host in which larval stages lives or asexual mode of reproduction takes place. Introduction Parenteric host: vertebrate host in which parasite remains viable without development or multiplication. Transport host: host serve to pass on the infection from one person to another. Zoonosis: a parasitic disease in which an animal is normally the host - but which also infects man Vector: a living carrier e.

A typical example is the female Anopheles mosquito that transmits malaria Host parasite relationship Commensalism or mutualism: parasites which lives in host without causing any damage in complete harmonial condition. Saprophytism: parasites which depends on dead and decaying organic matter for their survival. Parasitism: parasite which lives in and out of the body of host causing damage to host.

Introduction to medical parasitology.pptx

Sources of infection Parasitic infections to humans by various sources like Soil: embryonated eggs,infective larvae ex:ascaris eggs,hook worm larvae etc Water: infective forms,intermediate hosts,infective larvaes,freeliving parasites Food: contaminated with infected parasites,larvae,eggs etc Sources of infections Insect vectors:biological vectors like mosquito,sandflies,tsetse flies,ticks etc.

Mechanical vectors like houseflies. Animals : domestic and wild animals. Autoinfection: by self like fingers to mouth, internal reinfection. Modes of infection oral transmission: common mode,through contaminated food,water,soiled fingers or fomites.

medical parasitology ppt

Skin transmission: entry through skin Vector transmission: parasites undergo development or multiplication in the body of true vectors ie biological vectors transmit infective parasites or parasite stages. Mode of infections Direct transmission: parasitic infections transmitted by person to person contact like inhalation,congenital,iatrogenic infection,sexual mode. Course of infection Incubation or prepatent period: the interval time between initial infection and earliest appearance of parasite or its stages in blood or secretions.

Immunity in parasitic infections Like other infectious agents ,parasites also elicit immune responses in the host like humoral and cellular. But comparitively less efficient like bacteial and viral because their size,complex structure,antigenic structure etc.

Life cycle. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime.


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