La materia e le radiazioni nucleari

Segue un elenco dei vincitori del Premio Nobel per la fisicauno dei cinque premi istituiti da Alfred Nobel. Fonte: Nobelprize. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.

URL consultato il 2 ottobre Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons. Portale Biografie. Portale Fisica. Portale Premi Nobel. Categorie : Liste di vincitori del premio Nobel Vincitori del premio Nobel per la fisica. Categoria nascosta: Errori del modulo citazione - pagine con errori in urlarchivio. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra. Namespace Voce Discussione.

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la materia e le radiazioni nucleari

Wikimedia Commons. Alfred Nobel. Lorentz, Hendrik Hendrik Lorentz. Paesi Bassi. Zeeman, Pieter Pieter Zeeman. Curie, Pierre Pierre Curie. Curie, Marie Marie Curie. Regno Unito. Lenard, Philipp von Philipp von Lenard. Lippmann, Gabriel Gabriel Lippmann. Marconi, Guglielmo Guglielmo Marconi.

Wien, Wilhelm Wilhelm Wien. Laue, Max von Max von Laue. Stark, Johannes Johannes Stark. Einstein, Albert Albert Einstein. Stati Uniti. Franck, James James Franck. India Britannica.Il fatto che il dispositivo esploda al suolo, in atmosfera o al di fuori di essa determina quanta energia venga liberata nel blast e quanta in radiazione. Nelle fasi iniziali della detonazione, l'energia di un esplosivo nucleare viene rilasciata in diverse forme di radiazione penetrante. L' energia cinetica creata da tale espansione contribuisce alla formazione di un'onda d'urto.

Questo avrebbe implicato che la reazione nucleare tra due atomi di azoto fosse in grado di creare un atomo di carbonio e uno di ossigenocon rilascio di un'energia tale da eccitare altri atomi di azoto al punto di farli reagire, proseguendo la reazione a catena fino all'esaurimento di tutto l'azoto atmosferico. Le alte temperature e pressioni causano un movimento radiale del gas in un sottile e denso guscio chiamato fronte idrodinamico.

la materia e le radiazioni nucleari

Il fronte agisce come un pistone che spinge contro la materia circostante, comprimendola e trasferendo la propria energia sotto forma di un'onda d'urto sferica. Inizialmente, tale onda si troverebbe all'interno della superficie della palla di fuoco, che ha origine in un volume d'aria grazie all'interazione delle molecole che la compongono con una massiccia dose di raggi X.

Entro una frazione di secondo il denso fronte d'urto oscura la palla di fuoco, causando il caratteristico doppio impulso di luce che si nota nelle detonazioni nucleari. Agendo sul corpo umano, le onde d'urto causano onde di pressione attraverso i tessuti.

I principali rischi sono ustioni e danni irreversibili agli occhi. Quando la radiazione termica colpisce un oggetto, parte di essa viene riflessa, parte trasmessa e per il resto assorbita. L'assorbimento della radiazione alza la temperatura superficiale degli oggetti, causando deformazioni, bruciature e, infine, incendio dei materiali sottoposti, specie se facilmente infiammabili legno, carta, fibre tessili.

Una tempesta di fuoco causa potenti venti che soffiano verso il centro dell'incendio da ogni punto attorno a esso. Non si tratta tuttavia di un fenomeno peculiare delle esplosioni nucleari, essendo stato osservato frequentemente nei grandi incendi boschivi a seguito dei raid incendiari scatenati durante la seconda guerra mondiale. I raggi gamma provenienti da un'esplosione nucleare producono elettroni ad alta energia per effetto Compton.

La corrente elettrica in oscillazione produce un impulso elettromagnetico coerente EMP che dura circa un millisecondo. Le enormi differenze di potenziale, e le forti correnti elettriche ad esse associate possono distruggere completamente i componenti elettronici non schermati e molti collegamenti elettrici.

La componente ionizzata dell'atmosfera rende difficoltoso o impossibile anche la trasmissione di onde radio che normalmente rimbalzerebbero sulla ionosfera. Si possono schermare gli apparecchi elettronici avvolgendoli completamente in un materiale conduttore, in modo da creare una gabbia di Faraday. I neutroni sono prodotti quasi esclusivamente dalle reazioni di fissione e fusione nuclearementre la radiazione gamma iniziale proviene sia dalle reazioni nucleari sia dal decadimento a breve termine dei sottoprodotti della fissione.

Essa viene ridotta anche dall'assorbimento atmosferico e dalla diffusione.We were happy and pleased with our total experience booking our vacation with Nordic Visitor that we want to do it again.

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Vincitori del premio Nobel per la fisica

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la materia e le radiazioni nucleari

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Effetti delle esplosioni nucleari

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